Hepatitis A Edit

Hepatitis B Edit

Hepatitis C Edit

was originally identified in 1989, from an agent which was causing transfusion acquired hepatitis (Lindenbach 2007) referred to until HCV as non-A, non-B agent

Hepatitis C effects about 170 million people globally. HCV has a very high replication rate, with en estimated production of 10^12 virions (Lin et al 2007)

Resistance develops quickly due to the high error rate in viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, however there are highly conserved regions on the genotype which are drug targets.

subtypes Edit

genotype 1 HCV 90% of infections?

genotype 1a or 1b

2 and 3 HCV

6 genotypes


The structural proteins are in the NH2-terminal region of the polyprotein and the nonstructural proteins (NS) 2 to 5B in the remainder By analogy to related +strand RNA viruses, replication occurs by means of a minus (−) strand RNA intermediate and is catalyzed by the NS proteins forming most likely a cytoplasmic membrane–associated replicase complex.

treatment Edit

In 2012, the recommended treatment (Standard of Care) for HCV was a combination pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin (synthetic nucleoside which induces mutations in viral genes, is a broad spectrum antiviral nucleoside, Patrick 2009)

However this treatment did not induce a sustained response in the main genotype 1 HCV patients. (lin 2006)

ribaviin causes anemia, which are dose limiting. (lin et al calls for novel drugs 2006.)

2 PEG-INF available

2 new drugs boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TLV) which are protease inhibitors where approved in the US.

response Edit

Other host-related negative predictors of response include older age, male sex, black race, high body mass index (BMI) and presence of co-morbitities.
quote FP #4 hep C treatment.

Ghany 2009, Wirth 2010, Hadziyannis 2004, Khattab 2010

Structure Edit

receptor CD81

SR-BI possibly involved in structural attachment



C protein is targeted to the cytoplasmic surface of the ER


The mechanism of helicase action is incompletely un- derstood and an area of intense interest. NS3 has been shown to unwind RNA and DNA homo- and heterodu- plexes by binding to an unpaired region of a template strand and translocating in a 3 to 5 direction (35). NS3 preferen- tially hydrolyzes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to power this reaction, but can utilize any standard NTP or deoxynu- cleoside NTP (dNTP). NTPase

lifecycle Edit

# binding. it is thought that HCV use a number of surface receptors, or a receptor complex or corecptors (Lindenbach 2007) 

Following attachment, HCV is internalized, presumably via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

subtypes Edit

other Edit

it has been sug gested that interaction of HCV particles with lymphocyte- expressed CD81 may contribute to the disregulated immune response seen in patients with HCV

HCV is associated with HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatitis E Edit


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