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A Edit

Acids
effectively donate protons, or hydrogen atoms.


Activation State
activated complex, transition
Alkali metals
are found in group 1 of the periodic table, are very reactive, do not occur freely in nature and only have 1 electron in their outer shell and ready lost that electron in ionic bonding. Alkali metals react with water. (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, francium) can lost their outermost electron to form cations with charge +1.


Alkali earth metals
found in group 2 of the periodic table.


Allotropy 
or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, known as allotropes of these elements.
Anode
positive electrode


Atomic Number
the number of protons in the nucleus, characteristic of the element of the atom., The number in the periodic table, the number of electrons in a neutral atom of that element.


Atomic Mass
Atomic Mass Number
Total number of particles in the nucleus of the atom


Auto-ionization
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autoionization Autoionization is a process by which atoms or molecules spontaneously emit one of the shell electrons, thus going from a state with charge Z to a state with charge Z + 1, for example from an electrically neutral state to a singly ionized state

B Edit

benzyl 
the term used to describe the substituent or molecular fragment possessing the structure C6H5CH2-. Benzyl features a benzene ring attached to a CH2 group


C Edit

Cathode
negative electrode
Cation
Ion with a positive charge


Covalent Bond
where atoms are sharing electrons


Covalent network
is the strongest example of crystal network


Crystal
is a solid with molecules are in a consistent regular pattern structure (ice is a crystal) Crystals are solids having, in all three dimensions of space, a regularly repeating arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules. They are characterized by symmetry, morphology, and directionally dependent physical properties. A crystal structure describes the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a crystal.

D Edit

Diatomic molecular gas
Dipole
polar molecule
Dipole bonds
class of (hydrogen bonds are an example of)

E Edit

Electron shell
corresponds to n=0,1,2...
Electron subshell
s,p,d,f


Electronegativity
symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself. An atom's electronegativity is affected by both its atomic number and the distance that its valence electrons reside from the charged nucleus.
Emprical formula
the basic ratio of number of each atom constituents
Enthalphy
heat content, measured in joules, energy

F Edit

G Edit

glycosidic bond
is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.


H Edit

Halogen
highly reactive, found in group 17. have 7 electrons in outer shell. (Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine)
Heat
energy?
Hexane 
a hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C6H14 an alkane with six carbon atoms. also uses the term as the root of many compounds with a linear six-carbon backbone
Hydrogen bonds
tend to form between hydrogen and super electro negative atoms such as Nitrogen, Fluorine, Oxygen


Hydronium
H3O+
Hydroxylation 
a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound. In biochemistry, hydroxylation reactions are often facilitated by enzymes called hydroxylases. Hydroxylation is the first step in the oxidative degradation of organic compounds in air.

I Edit

Ideal Gases
@todo
Ion
any atom or molecule in which the proton count does not equal the electrons, hence there is a non-zero net charge.
Ionic crystal
become conductive when in solution
Ionic polar bonds
Ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron


Ionization energy (2nd)
the energy required to remove the next electron
Intermolecular bonds

J Edit

K Edit

Kinetics
how fast

L Edit

Leptons
electrons are type of leptons


London Dispersion Force
very weak force, weakest of the type of van der Waals class of forces.

M Edit

Metalic Ions
form positive ions
Metalic nature
the tendency to give away electrons?
Molality
moles of solute/mass of solvent
Molarity
moles of solute/litres of solution
mole
6.02E23 also Avogadros numbers, a mole is defined as the amount of a system that contains as many "elemental entities" as there are atoms in 12g of carbon-12
Mole Fraction
moles solute/(moles solute+moves solvent)


Molecular Mass
Molecular Symmetry
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_symmetry

N Edit

Noble Gases
8 electrons in the outer shell, unreactive.

P Edit

pH
Pi Bond
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pi_bond pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved atomic orbital.
Plasma
state of matter where the electrons have been stripped off the molecules and hence makes everything conductive.
Polar Bonds
hold solids together, based on the polar nature of a molecule orientating and creating a large scale strucure.
Polar Covalent bond
when a molecule is polar overall because of the charge distribution is uneven
Polycyclic compound
a cyclic compound with more than one hydrocarbon loop or ring structures
Protons
are made from quarks

Q Edit

quarks
basic particle. protons and neutrons are made from quarks.


S Edit

Salts
ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. They are composed of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral. These component ions can be inorganic such as chloride (Cl−), as well as organic such as acetate (CH3COO−) and monatomic ions such as fluoride (F−), as well as polyatomic ions such as sulfate (SO42−).
saturated compound 
has no double or triple bonds or ring. In saturated hydrocarbons, every carbon atom is attached to two hydrogen atoms, except those at the ends of the chain, which bear three hydrogen atoms. In the case of saturated ethane, each carbon centre has four single bonds as is characteristic of other saturated hydrocarbon
Silver (Ag)
is the best conductor
Solid state of matter
Covalent network -> Ionic crystal -> metallic crystal
Stoichiometry
is a branch of chemistry that deals with the relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions

T Edit

Temperature
average kinetic energy

U Edit

V Edit

valence shell
is the outermost shell of an atom.
Van der Waals
class of intermolecular forces that are not covalent bonds, that are not ionic bonds examples increasing in strength (London -> Dipole -> Hydrogen)
Vapour pressure

W Edit

X Edit

Y Edit

Z Edit

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