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- effectively donate protons, or hydrogen atoms.
- Activation State
- activated complex, transition
- Alkali metals
- are found in group 1 of the periodic table, are very reactive, do not occur freely in nature and only have 1 electron in their outer shell and ready lost that electron in ionic bonding. Alkali metals react with water. (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, francium) can lost their outermost electron to form cations with charge +1.
- Alkali earth metals
- found in group 2 of the periodic table.
- or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, known as allotropes of these elements.
- positive electrode
- Atomic Number
- the number of protons in the nucleus, characteristic of the element of the atom., The number in the periodic table, the number of electrons in a neutral atom of that element.
- Atomic Mass
- Atomic Mass Number
- Total number of particles in the nucleus of the atom
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autoionization Autoionization is a process by which atoms or molecules spontaneously emit one of the shell electrons, thus going from a state with charge Z to a state with charge Z + 1, for example from an electrically neutral state to a singly ionized state
- the term used to describe the substituent or molecular fragment possessing the structure C6H5CH2-. Benzyl features a benzene ring attached to a CH2 group
- negative electrode
- Ion with a positive charge
- Covalent Bond
- where atoms are sharing electrons
- Covalent network
- is the strongest example of crystal network
- is a solid with molecules are in a consistent regular pattern structure (ice is a crystal) Crystals are solids having, in all three dimensions of space, a regularly repeating arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules. They are characterized by symmetry, morphology, and directionally dependent physical properties. A crystal structure describes the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a crystal.
- Diatomic molecular gas
- polar molecule
- Dipole bonds
- class of (hydrogen bonds are an example of)
- Electron shell
- corresponds to n=0,1,2...
- Electron subshell
- symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself. An atom's electronegativity is affected by both its atomic number and the distance that its valence electrons reside from the charged nucleus.
- Emprical formula
- the basic ratio of number of each atom constituents
- heat content, measured in joules, energy
- glycosidic bond
- is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
- highly reactive, found in group 17. have 7 electrons in outer shell. (Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine)
- a hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C6H14 an alkane with six carbon atoms. also uses the term as the root of many compounds with a linear six-carbon backbone
- Hydrogen bonds
- tend to form between hydrogen and super electro negative atoms such as Nitrogen, Fluorine, Oxygen
- a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound. In biochemistry, hydroxylation reactions are often facilitated by enzymes called hydroxylases. Hydroxylation is the first step in the oxidative degradation of organic compounds in air.
- Ideal Gases
- any atom or molecule in which the proton count does not equal the electrons, hence there is a non-zero net charge.
- Ionic crystal
- become conductive when in solution
- Ionic polar bonds
- Ionization energy
- the energy required to remove an electron
- Ionization energy (2nd)
- the energy required to remove the next electron
- Intermolecular bonds
- how fast
- electrons are type of leptons
- London Dispersion Force
- very weak force, weakest of the type of van der Waals class of forces.
- Metalic Ions
- form positive ions
- Metalic nature
- the tendency to give away electrons?
- moles of solute/mass of solvent
- moles of solute/litres of solution
- 6.02E23 also Avogadros numbers, a mole is defined as the amount of a system that contains as many "elemental entities" as there are atoms in 12g of carbon-12
- Mole Fraction
- moles solute/(moles solute+moves solvent)
- Molecular Mass
- Molecular Symmetry
- Noble Gases
- 8 electrons in the outer shell, unreactive.
- Pi Bond
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pi_bond pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved atomic orbital.
- state of matter where the electrons have been stripped off the molecules and hence makes everything conductive.
- Polar Bonds
- hold solids together, based on the polar nature of a molecule orientating and creating a large scale strucure.
- Polar Covalent bond
- when a molecule is polar overall because of the charge distribution is uneven
- Polycyclic compound
- a cyclic compound with more than one hydrocarbon loop or ring structures
- are made from quarks
- basic particle. protons and neutrons are made from quarks.
- ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. They are composed of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral. These component ions can be inorganic such as chloride (Cl−), as well as organic such as acetate (CH3COO−) and monatomic ions such as fluoride (F−), as well as polyatomic ions such as sulfate (SO42−).
- saturated compound
- has no double or triple bonds or ring. In saturated hydrocarbons, every carbon atom is attached to two hydrogen atoms, except those at the ends of the chain, which bear three hydrogen atoms. In the case of saturated ethane, each carbon centre has four single bonds as is characteristic of other saturated hydrocarbon
- Silver (Ag)
- is the best conductor
- Solid state of matter
- Covalent network -> Ionic crystal -> metallic crystal
- is a branch of chemistry that deals with the relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions
- average kinetic energy
- valence shell
- is the outermost shell of an atom.
- Van der Waals
- class of intermolecular forces that are not covalent bonds, that are not ionic bonds examples increasing in strength (London -> Dipole -> Hydrogen)
- Vapour pressure
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